Laboratory Studies on Various Bacterial Species
Zanin (Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2005: 56, 324-330)
Article by Zanin I.C.J. et al Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2005. 56. 324-330. Demonstrates that the both LED and HeNe laser light were effective at activating Toluidine Blue photosensitiser to kill S mutans in biofilms
Burns et al
Paper by Burns T. et al Journal of Medical Microbiology 1993: 401-405. Shows that a range of oral bacteria are susceptible to the effect of light and photosensitiser combined.
Williams (Caries Res. 2003:37:190-193)
Article by Williams J. et al Caries Research. 2003. 37: 190-193. Shows increasing delivered energy density used in PAD™ reduces bacterial load.
Bevilacqua (Photomedicine and Laser Surgery Volume 25, Number 6, 2007)
Paper by Bevilacqua I.M. et al Photomedicine and Laser Surgery. 2007. 25: 513-518. Demonstrates the effect of LED light and Toluidine Blue O on S mutans viability and shows substantial log reduction in bacterial load.
Burns et al (J. Dent 1994,22, 273-278)
Second paper by Burns T. et al Journal of Dentistry. 1994. 22: 273-278. Demonstrates high level bacterial kills need combination of light and photosensitiser matched.
Giroldo (Laser Med. Sci. DOI 10.1007/s10103-007-0530-2)
Paper by Giroldo L.M. et al Lasers in Medical Science 2008. 18: 45-52. Demonstrates that the PAD™ process is effective against C albicans
Zanin (Eur J Oral Sci 2006, 114:64-69)
Paper by Zanin I.C.J. et al European Journal of Oral Sciences. 2006. 114: 64-69. Shows that bacterial load reduction in biofi lms grown on enamel could be achieved with LED light sources and Toluidine Blue O